All About Fabric and Materials

Terms & Definitions:
Acetate
•A man-made fiber used for linings.

Acrylic
•A man-made fiber that is an excellent choice for knits because of its soft, wool-like feel.

Alpaca
•Yarn from alpaca sheep that is often woven with wool or cashmere to create a soft, luxurious garment.

Besom Pocket
•A pocket finished with a narrow folded piece of fabric on one or both sides of the opening, meant to reinforce the pocket.

Bird’s Eye
•Cotton or fine wool fabric that is comprised of small repetitive shapes that resemble a bird’s eye.

Button-Down Collar
•A collar that is secured to the shirt by small buttons on both points.

Cable Knit
•A knitting pattern in which “cables” on the garment twist around each another.

Camelhair
•Hair sheared from a camel that produces a soft, luxurious fabric. Camelhair is usually used in the construction of suits and jackets.

Camp Shirt
•A button-down shirt with a notched collar, boxy cut, straight hem and short sleeves.

Car Coat
•¾-length coat that is historically known as comfortable for driving.

Cardigan
•A long-sleeved, collarless sweater that buttons down the front.

Cashmere
•Extremely soft and lightweight fiber combed from the undercoat of the long-haired Kashmir goat.

Chevron
•Pattern characterized by inverted V’s.

Corduroy
•A fabric with distinctive vertical rows. Each row, known as a wale, can vary in width.

Cotton
•Gathered from the seed pods of the cotton plant, or the cloth made from these fibers. There are several grades of cotton; pima and Sea Island cotton are the best quality.

Donegal
•A knit or tweed with coarse multicolored yarns with nubs that are combined with single-colored yarns to produce a mottled effect.

Drape
•The way a fabric or garment hangs. Drape can alter the way a garment fits and looks.

Finishing
•A process performed on a fabric after it is woven that can dramatically change its look and feel.

Flannel
•A more expensive method of knitting a garment in which the complete unit is shaped and knit on the machine, as opposed to being sewn together from separate pieces.

Gabardine
•A durable, compactly woven twill fabric, sometimes with a high sheen.

Gauge
•A term used to describe the number of loops per 1 to 1 1/2 inches in a knitted fabric or garment.

Gingham
•A cotton fabric with a checkered pattern, most typically in white and another color.

Glen Plaid
•A fabric featuring a design of small and large woven checks.

Gorge
•The seam where the collar and lapel meet on a men’s jacket, forming the notch; determines the length and roll of the lapel.

Grosgrain
•A closely woven silk or rayon fabric with narrow horizontal rounded ribs.

Half Lining
•A lining in only one part of the garment.

Hand
•Qualities of a fabric revealed through a sense of touch.

Handwoven
•Material woven on a hand-operated loom.

Heather Yarns
•A yarn consisting of differently colored fibers that are blended together to give a soft, muted look.

Herringbone
•A twill fabric, usually wool, with a distinctive V pattern resembling the skeleton of a herring fish.

High Twist Yarns
•Material woven on a hand-operated loom.

Houndstooth
•A fabric with distinctive broken checks that resembles the jagged back teeth of a hound.

Jacquard
•A fabric with a design woven into it.

Knit
•A process of making a fabric or garment with hand- or machine-made interlocking looped stitches.

Lambswool
•Soft, resilient wool yarn from the first shearing of a sheep.

Lapel
•The turned-back front section of a jacket or coat that connects to the collar and forms a “V” where the jacket or coat closes.

Leather
•The skin or hide of an animal with the hair removed.

Linen
•The strong, coarse, absorbent, cool fibers gathered from the flax plant, or the cloth made from these fibers.

Lining
•Fabric on the inside of a garment.

Long Staple Cotton
•Cotton whose fiber is almost two inches long. Length of the fiber increases durability and hand of the garment.

Lycra
•A trademark DuPont fiber that has incredible stretch and recovery. Lycra® is a brand-name spandex that is usually woven with other fibers to provide ease in fabrics.

Madras
•A plain-weave lightweight cotton fabric, most commonly known for its plaid pattern.

Mercerized Cotton
•A term used to describe a thread, yarn or fabric that has undergone a finishing process that increases its luster and smoothness.

Merino Wool
•A better-quality wool yarn made from the fleece of merino sheep.

Microfiber
•An extremely fine synthetic fiber unusual in that it is extremely breathable and warm. Often, and legally, referred to as its generic/parent name, polyester.

Mock Neck
•A knit pullover finished at the neckline with a short, fitted knit band that does not fold over; an abbreviated version of the turtleneck.

Modal
•Fiber made by spinning reconstituted cellulose from beech trees; a variety of rayon.

Nylon
•A synthetic fiber that is silky, strong, resistant to creases and stains and washable.

Patch Pocket
•A flat, outside pocket stitched onto a garment.

Pinstripe
•Crisp, thin, usually gray or white, evenly spaced lines woven into fabrics.

Piping
•A narrow fold of fabric in a seam to provide decorative embellishment.

Pique
•A durable woven or knit fabric that is characterized by an allover textured pattern, the most popular of which are the cord, diamond and honeycomb.

Plaid
•A fabric in which bands of color running horizontally and vertically intersect to form squares.

Plain Weave
•The simplest of fabric weaves in which length and crosswise yarns interlace over and under, alternately.

Pleats
•A fold of fabric made by doubling material over on itself.

Polyester
•A man-made fiber resistant to shrinkage, wrinkling and moths.

Pullover
•A knit top that can be pulled on over the head.

Rib Knit
•A knitted fabric with alternating raised and lowered rows. More elastic and durable than plain knits.

Rise
•Distance from the crotch seam to the top of the waistband in pants.

Sandwashed Silk
•Material subjected to the gentle abrasion of a sand and water mixture.

Seersucker
•A midweight fabric that has a permanent puckered striped effect created through releasing the tension on the loom during weaving.

Sharkskin
•Smooth wool in a twill weave that has a characteristic alternating black-and-white pattern for a grayed effect. The surface is said to resemble a skin of a shark.

Silk
•A fiber composed mainly of fibroin and produced by certain insect larvae to form cocoons, especially the strong, elastic, fibrous secretion of silkworms used to make thread and fabric.

Suede
•A type of leather with a soft, napped finish.

Super Wools
•The story of this thread lies within the numbering system used to describe the new breed of super-lightweight, high-twist wools. Pioneered by Italian mills about ten years ago, these fabrics are made using high-tech machines that spin wool lighter and finer than it's ever been spun before. The various grades of cloth are referred to as Super 100s, Super 120s, Super 150s and so on, up to Super 200s.

Tencel / Lyocell
•A natural, man-made fiber produced in an environmentally-friendly process from wood pulp. It has become popular in clothing because it is absorbent and comfortable for wear, especially in conditions of high humidity.  Lyocell also drapes attractively and is flattering in dresses and shirts. Lyocell is stronger than cotton or regular viscose rayon and does not lose strength when wet as viscose rayon does. Lyocell stretches more than cotton, but less than viscose. It is often blended with cotton and/or polyester, mainly in woven fabrics, rather than knits. It is absorbent and comfortable for wear in conditions of high humidity because it is cellulosic, which causes moisture to be wicked away from your skin.

Tropical Weight
•A smooth wool fabric made from two-ply yarns in an open plain weave. Lightweight and airy, this wool is ideal for summer garments.

Vent
•A slit or two slits that appear at the bottom of the back of a jacket or blazer.

Viscose
•A type of rayon.

Whipcord
•A strong worsted or cotton fabric made of hard-twisted yarns with a diagonal cord or rib.

Wool
•A fiber derived principally from sheep.

Worsted Wool
•A carded, combed, tightly twisted yarn that produces crisp, smooth woolens.

Yarn
•A strand of natural or man-made fibers joined together and used in weaving or knitting to make fabric.

Yoke
•A cut of fabric seamed across the top of a pant or shirt.

Zegna Baruffa Yarns
•A wide range of yarns that appear clean and smooth, flowing and extremely light. Zegna Baruffa is an Italian firm with a long tradition of high quality and excellence.

FABRIC CARE
General
A good rule of thumb is to always read the care and content label to determine how to care for your garment. To get the longest life from your Paul Fredrick shirt we recommend cold-water washing and tumble dry – delicate. Remove shirts and use warm iron while still slightly damp. If you prefer to launder or dry-clean your shirts we recommend very light starch.

When the care label reads "Use Mild Detergent," use a gentle detergent meant for cold-water washing of delicates.
When the care label reads "Hand Wash," use lukewarm water. Do not use chlorine bleach on colored items.

Cashmere
• Dry Clean.
• Never hang knitted garments.
• Store cashmere folded in tissue or see-through garment bags. This will not only keep them cleaner, it will help prevent pilling by keeping garments from rubbing against each other.
• To remove pills (tiny balls on the surface), cut very carefully with a safety razor.

Cotton
• If label reads "Machine Wash," then use all-purpose detergent and follow temperature instructions on garment.
• If label reads "Tumble Dry," remove promptly when finished to avoid wrinkles.
• Knits (T-shirts): To avoid shrinkage, dry flat.
• Sweaters: Tumble dry partially, then reshape and dry flat.

Linen
• If label reads "Machine Wash and Dry," follow temperature instructions on fabric.
• Linen should be pressed with a hot iron while still slightly damp.

Silk
• If care label reads "Hand Wash," as in the case of some in silk knits, use a neutral soap.
• Rinse. Gently press out excess water in towel. Don't wring or twist. Smooth and straighten
• Seams and air dry fabric out of direct sunlight until slightly damp.
• To iron silk, steam press wrong side while slightly damp.

Wool
• If care label reads "Hand Wash," use a mild detergent in lukewarm water. Soak the garment for several minutes; swish gently and rinse. Be sure to eliminate all suds. Do not wring or twist. Instead, roll garment in an absorbent towel and gently wring the towel. Remove the garment and lie flat to dry.
• Refresh wool, with the exception of knitted wool, by hanging in a steamy bathroom.
• Wool needs airing and breathing room. Hang wool garments (other than knits) on a proper hanger in a well ventilated closet.
• Wool shrinks and dulls at high temperatures. Dry clean all wool unless it is specifically marked "Washable." Wash by hand unless label specifically reads "Machine Washable."
• In order to keep their shape, knitted woolens should be folded flat, not put on hangers.

LEATHER – FOOTWEAR & OUTERWEAR
CARE TIPS
Leather is a product of nature. Animal hides and skins provide the raw materials to make leather. The leather making process is known as "TANNING".

• Leather is comfortable
• Leather absorbs moisture
• Leather breathes
• Leather shapes itself to the foot
• Leather protects the foot
• Leather is quality
• Leather is lightweight, yet strong

CALFSKIN: Leather made from the skins of young cattle. It is primarily used in better-grade men's and women's dress shoes. Calfskin leather is double or more than the cost of side leather.

Advantages
• Very lightweight yet strong
• Has a high ability to resist minor scuffing
• Beautiful grain (fine and firm)
• Highly porous
• Has excellent conformability
• Distinctive look
• Takes and holds a shine
• Great Color Depth

FULL GRAIN SIDE LEATHER: Side leather used for shoe uppers is the most versatile leather used. It is also used for other parts including linings.

Shoe upper leather consists of the hair side of cattle hides. The name side leather originated from dividing a hide along the backbone into two halves or "sides". This is the most commonly used shoe upper leather.

Full grain and top grain are the same. Natural hide surface is developed with finishing from premium hides.

Advantages
• Very serviceable
• Breathability
• Conformability
• Has good aesthetics
• Responds to fashion trends

NUBUC: A slightly buffed version of side leather. Split Leather or Brushed Leather. Split leather is created when thick cattle sides are machine split to obtain a desired side leather thickness. The top portion is the grain layer; the bottom or underneath is the split layer and referred to as "split".

Split leather is chrome tanned and generally comparatively lightweight. To the unpracticed eye, it may be difficult to identify split leather from reverse side leather. More than likely footwear with split leather uppers will be priced lower.

Advantages
• Can be used for both insoles & outsoles
• Lightweight
• Flexible
• Good color density
• Select grain appearance

KIPSKIN LEATHER Leather made from the skin of young goats. Kipskin is more expensive than side leather but less expensive than calf. It is primarily used on better-grade dress shoes.

Kipskin finished on the flesh side for use in footwear is commonly called SUEDE. Suede or sueding is a process of sandpapering, abrading a hide or skin. Sueded kipskin (kipskin suede) is developed through a specially created series of treatments with natural and chemical materials and solutions.

Advantages
• Very lightweight
• Very strong
• Very soft and porous
• Very resilient
• Great latitude of design

LIZARD SKIN
The skin of any of a great number of the lizard family. These skins have a distinctive surface and are imported from tropical countries.

Patent leather refers to the finish produced by covering the surface of leather with successive coats of daub and varnish. Used almost exclusively in dress shoes. The main ones are alligator, lizard, and snake. Most skins are imported and are very expensive.

CROCODILE Certain species legally farmed and harvested From Indo-Australia, New Guinea and also South Africa. Similar to alligator in appearance.

OSTRICH skins from commercial ranch raised birds less likely to dry out or crack...soft and conformable...particularly resistant to barnyard acids and street chemicals...most practical of the "prestige" exotics.

Smooth leather...the obvious surface finish...broad terms used.

Wax Finish...wax is worked into the flesh side of heavier weights of leather, resulting in a distinctive finish often used in casual styles.

Grain leather...primarily in connection with lower priced footwear...usually lower grades of cowhide and split leather.

Antiqued...contrasting color spot sprayed on leather surface...rubbed to create highlights...part of footwear manufacturing process.

Brush-off leather...color added to surface by tanner...manufacturer uses brushing wheel to take off some coloring material...changes color tone.

Lining leather...can be most any leather...from various animals including cattle, goats, sheep, pigs, kangaroo.

Aniline...produces a transparent mirrored look showing the grain pattern.

Pigment...gives an opaque surface more like painted over and covers grain, scars etc.

Suede...merely buffed to create nap.


LEATHER/SUEDE CARE TIPS
Leather footwear and outerwear will afford more comfort and longer wear if they are cared for properly. Paul Fredrick MenStyle offers the following tips for keeping leather products looking and wearing their best:

• Garments should be stored in a cool, dry place.

• Storing leather or suede in plastic bags will dry out or discolor the skins. A simple paper cover over the shoulders will keep dust off the garment.

• Keep suede garments cleaner between professional cleanings by removing dust with a dry sponge.

• Hang leather or suede garments on contoured wooden or plastic hangers. They will keep their shape better.

• Don't allow leather or suede garments to become overly soiled between professional cleanings. They may become impossible to restore.

• Always store leather shoes with moisture-absorbing cedar shoe trees, to prevent leather cracking and permanent creasing where the toe bends.

• Always use a shoe horn when putting on shoes to prevent the back of the shoe from breaking down. Never force feet into the shoes.

• Always keep leather away from direct heat to prevent it from drying out. Leather should always dry naturally.

• Give shoes a rest between wearings. Leather shoes should have one full day to dry out from natural foot perspiration and should not be worn on two consecutive days.

• When polishing shoes, use only a high quality paste or cream that will help moisturize leather and keep it from drying out. Never use a liquid polish on leather shoes.

• Never use any type of cleaner that contains an acid or a detergent...both are damaging to fine leather, and will age the product.

• If leather becomes heavily soiled, use a mild application of Ivory soap on a damp cloth, wipe off, and allow to dry. Then apply a leather conditioner. This treatment should restore the original luster without any damaging effects to the leather.

Find your size
Not quite sure what size you need? Use our sizing information below to find what size is appropriate for you. And once you determine your size, you can search our website for our entire selection in your specific size preference.

SIZING –

Shoes widths
B(N) = Narrow
D(M) = Medium
EE(W) = Wide

International Shoe Size Chart
USA Europe
Japan
UK
6 39.5 E/W D/M
6.5 40 24.5 24 6
7 40.5 25 24.5 6.5
7.5 41 25.5 25 7
8 41.5 26 25.5 7.5
8.5 42 26.5 26 8
9 42.5 27 26.5 8.5
9.5 43 27.5 27 9
10 43.5 28 27.5 9.5*
10.5 44 9.5*
11 44.5 10
11.5 45 10.5
12 46 11
UK 9.5 is the equivalent of Europe 43.5/44

Casual Wear
S (14-141/2)
M (15-151/2)
L (16-161/2)
XL (17-171/2)
small = 14.5 x 33
medium = 15-15.5x34
large = 16-16.5x35
x-large = 17-17.5x36
xxl = 18-19x37

Dress Shirt Collar Choices
The basic rule is not to wear a collar that is the same shape as your face. Below are collar suggestions that are generally accepted by the fashion industry. However, keep in mind that many variations exist and these rules do not apply to every man and every situation. The key is to trust your judgment and wear what makes you feel confident!

If you have a long, narrow face:
Varsity Spread, Windsor Spread

If you have a round face:
European Straight, Traditional Straight

For casual settings:
Buttondown

For a conservative look:
Windsor Spread, Traditional Straight, English Tab

For a contemporary look:
Varsity Spread, European Straight

With a double-breasted suit:
Varsity Spread, Windsor Spread
Buttondown
Varsity Spread
Traditional Straight
     
     
Windsor Spread
English Tab
European Straight

Monogramming
Shirts are monogrammed on your choice of the left cuff or front pocket in 1/4" letters in navy, burgundy or white. Other monogram colors also available. Three span styles are available - block, diamond and script. Enter your first, middle and last initials (in that order) in the appropriate field on the website. Add $10.95 per item monogrammed and allow 1-2 extra days for delivery.


Frequently Asked Questions

Question:
Are your shirts 100% cotton?
Answer:
Our basic collection is 100% cotton. Seasonal additions also include styles in cotton blends, linens, and various techno fabrics.

Question:
How long are your ties?
Answer:
Our ties are 56" long and measure at the widest point 3 3/4"to 4".
We also offer neckties with 5 additional inches to the length for our taller customers.

Question:
Are your ties made of silk?
Answer:
Yes, we carry ties in different types of silks (from the lightest weight to the heaviest weight). Jacquard: woven background with print on top of fabric. Twill: thinly ribbed fabric. Saglione Twill: thick ribbed fabric Woven: pattern actually woven into fabric "not" printed on fabric.

Question:
What type of tie knot is used in your catalog?
Answer:
We use a four-in-hand knot in our catalog displays and on our models.

Question:
What are your belts made from?
Answer:
Our belts are cut from calf leather with faux animal hide imprints.

Question:
What is a self-cuff?
Answer:
A "self-French" or "self-button" cuff means the cuff material is the same color/pattern as the body of the shirt. A contrasting cuff is a solid white cuff on a different color/ pattern shirt body - this usually will be done in a French cuff style.

Question:
What is the difference between the regular fit and trim fit?
Answer:
Our regular fit shirts are generously full cut and our trim fit generally drops the regular fit down by 5 inches in the chest measurements and 6 inches in the waist - this is not to be considered an "athletic" cut shirt but is a "trimmer" fit from the full cut regular fit shirts.

Question:
How do I order the correct belt size?
Answer:
When ordering a belt, we suggest that you add 2" to your waist measurements. If you fall in an un-even length - you should order the next even length size. Example: if you are a 33" waist, add 2' = 35" you would then order 36" length.

Question:
What dress shirt size should I order?
Answer:
We recommend ordering your normal shirt size. We allow over-sizing by 1/2" to 3/4" for fabric shrinkage. Sleeve lengths are ordered by full inches - if you are in-between sizes; we recommend ordering the next full inch size.

Question:
What sport shirt size should I order?
Answer:
Our sport shirt sizes are as follows: